Business method for novel ideas and inventions commercialization
Open Peer Review
Author: Oleg Matveev
1 . Introduction
2. Drawbacks of the existing system.
4. Business method description.
4.1. Why the ideas have to be better protected?
4.2. Advantages of the business method.
4.3. Old and new systems and methods comparison
Copyright Ó 2004 by Oleg Matveev
The existing in the USA scientific enterprise has tremendous reserves for improvements. Hundreds and thousands of books and articles offer many original ideas worth to be studied and implemented to make considerable progress to improve the whole science management system and to eliminate its imperfections, flaws and deficiencies. However, the real progress in eradication of these deficiencies is rather slow or may be even in the state of almost perpetual stagnation. If scientific enterprise is not organized optimally the process of novel scientific ideas and inventions commercialization become unacceptably slow, selectivity in choosing the most promising invention is far from being optimal.
If people invest in science, they expect that their money will be spent in the best of their interests. There are many ordinary people, scientists, politicians who suppose that modern science management system is actually designed for these purposes. However, not everyone believe that this is true and that all elements of existing system for science organization and management are primarily designed to serve for the benefits of the Investor and for the scientific progress. Many indications of this disbelief can be seen in the literature. “ In tens of thousands of books and hundreds of thousands of journal articles, they have perverted the system of academic publishing into a scheme that serves only to advance academic careers and bloat libraries with masses of unread, unreadable, and worthless pabulum. … They have constructed machinery that so far has frustrated or sabotaged every effort at meaningful reform that might interfere with their boondoggle. “ . Physicist prof. G. Khromov in his book “The science which we are loosing” wrote :“It will not be exaggeration to say that the main forms of science organization had not been changed for almost five centuries.”
The main reasons that all efforts to change the system had been sabotaged are analyzed in detail in many books and articles [See, for example, 1-5]. Briefly formulated these reasons can be expressed as following: the American model for science support and management , and apparently to the much greater extend the models and systems of any other country, implanted into the methodology of management too much of romantic socialism. “America’s academic intellectuals work in a quasi-socialist state, while our professional intellectuals, for the most part work under bare-knuckle capitalism. …America’s academic intellectuals are largely insulated from the discipline of free markets, each university or college a tiny oasis of quasi-socialism .” As it is well known from the history of Soviet-block countries, unavoidable satellites of any socialist system are lie, corruption, dishonest and unfair competition, which from certain moment stalled, nullified any efforts to revive and to make more effective their economy and science. Huge financial and human resources were invested into scientific research to fix the Soviet socialist economic and science management system. However, everything was in vain. The system was incorrigible and it has perished loosing economical competition.
The capitalism has won the economic competition mainly because of two reasons. First of all, it provided much clearly formulated, fair and honest rules of intellectual competition for entrepreneurs and companies; secondly, people and companies have much more degrees of freedom to do business. The same as in the economy, the norms of honest and fair competition are extremely important constituents in the design of contemporary science management system. The reflections and results of this competition are normally seen in career achievements of a scientist. However as known,“Most academics,” a 1987 report by the Economic Policy Institute concluded, “live in a world whose incentives have nothing to do with economic competitiveness. It needs to be added that their incentives also have nothing to do with real intellectual competition. Real competition in science theoretically has to be based on evaluations of real personal achievements of scientists, but instead of it, irrelevant and subjective factors play inadequately colossal role in the career of scientists. As seen in the literature [1-8] and in the real scientific life, the career, promotions and rewards of scientists depend on many factors:
1. Ability, skill, talent of scientists to raise the money for research.
2. Number of published papers, books, patents etc.
3. Number and prestigiousness of scientist’s awards and prizes.
4. His loyalty to his peers, superiors and to the existing system of science management.
5. How good he/she is as a teacher, writer, speaker, orator, and lecturer.
6. What kind of service and how often it is performed for academic journals, university and various committees, foundations, city community etc.
8. Personal wealth.
9. The university from which you were graduated. (Pedigree requirement or it is called sometimes academic pedigree).
10. Who was your Ph.D. advisor/professor in graduate school?
11. Ethnic roots. Race.
14. Your country of origin and citizenship.
15. How well the person gets along with his colleagues. (Collegiality).
16. Ability, when it is necessary, to be politically correct, obedient and malleable.
17. Membership in societies and academies.
18. How many Ph.D. students are graduated under your supervision.
19. Emotions about you of your colleagues, friends, bosses, chairs, presidents, directors,students, faculties, staff members, members of various scientific committees, members of academies, scientific societies, etc.
20. How good is your communication skill.
21. How long have you been working at the institution, where your current job is.
22. Person’s appearance, personality, character.
23. How good you are in demonstrating to look important, VIP, pompous.
24. How good you are in catching on time, understanding and following nowhere written the rules of the game in science. You never can find them written anywhere. They can be very different in different places and in different fields of science. Some of these unwritten rules do not look as very honorable. “Ones you passed the Ph.D., the rules for scaling successive steps become increasingly less well defined. The rules are often unwritten, and people you must impress are further afield” .
25. How good you are in following the written norms of ethics and moral conduct, which are sometimes very contradictory and very often directed to give unjustified advantages for scientists who have already power, money and established position.
26. How valuable for the country, society, people, for the mankind is a new scientific knowledgeobtained withyour participation and published with coauthors.
27. How valuable for society, for people, for the mankind is a new scientific knowledge personally obtained by a scientist.
28. How good you are in reviewing, evaluating and interpreting new scientific ideas and knowledge obtained by other scientists.
29. How secure is your boss’s position within the institution where you work and within a scientific community of a country and internationally.
30. How lucky is a scientist/professor to attract talented graduate students, postdocs, and other scientists to work with him.
31. Number of graduate students, postdocs and scientists who worked and are working for you.
32. How big and well equipped is a laboratory where you work.
33. How prestigious is the institution where you work.
34. How good you are in playing the game: “I have a job offer from another institution.” (Sometimes it is also called academic chicken game).
35. Serendipity. A pure luck and accidental discovery. Jackpot in the scientific lottery.
Certainly not all factors influencing somebody's scientific career are listed here. It is evident that all of these factors except # 27, 28 are either absolutely or to a great extend are irrelevant. I.e. theoretically they do not have to have any influence on scientists’ visible rank, career and rewards. It is evidently the more society underappreciate real personal contribution of scientists the more scientific garbage will be produced by science. Common sense tells us that all of these irrelevant factors must not have any tangible influence on scientists' rewards from society. However, in real life not everything is so ideal. Of course, the influence of different factors is very different depending on the field of science, country, university, department, even scientific group etc. In some places, universities or countries some of them are negligible. Somewhere the irrelevant factors are unacceptably influential.
One of the most amazing facts of contemporary scientific life is that only on very rare occasions we can find out, extract or dig up the information about the real value of personal scientific contribution of a scientist. This can happen, for example, if a scientist has at least one original publication (paper, patent etc.) written without coauthors with new, nontrivial idea suggested solely by him. Unfortunately, works like these more and more often become rather an exception than a standard scientific practice. The academic intellectuals have developed such a tight-knit scheme of intellectual logrolling that their evaluations of the merits of scholarly work have become, for the most part, worthless – especially those based on article or citation counts. There need to be strong reemphasis on quality - on the importance and relevance of research and writing – instead of quantity.
Even worse is the situation with the information about ability of scientists to be effective reviewers and evaluators of scientific ideas and proposals. Practically all scientific reviewing is anonymous. No one knows and no one keeps information, for example, who was the first one to recognize great scientific ideas or who made mistakes in evaluating promising important proposals of other scientists. The information about scientist's ability to be an effective reviewer of scientific proposals and ideas, as a rule, has very minuscule influence on his career. This paradoxical fact does not have any logical explanation. It is one of the greatest puzzles of the American and the whole world scientific life: how in existing system, which very often does not provide any reliable clue who is who in science, one can determine the rank, rewards and the fate of scientists.
It is understandable that the degree of uncertainty in determining the rank of scientists is directly relevant to the degree of uncertainties in determining the value and significance of newly suggested inventions, ideas and proposals of scientists. The more subjective and irrelevant factors play role in the fate of scientists the longer it takes for the system to recognize the most valuable and promising ideas and much more redundant information and noise is produced by science. As mentioned in  Donald Kennedy, president of Stanford University says “….The overproduction of routine scholarship is one of the most egregious aspects of contemporary academic life: It tends to conceal really important work by its sheer volume: it wastes time and valuable resources.”
The same idea is expressed by many others scholars, for example, provost of the University of California at Santa Cruz Page Smith : “ The vast majority of the so-called research turned out in the modern university is essentially worthless. It does not result in any measurable benefit to anything or anybody. It does not push back those omnipresent “frontiers of knowledge” so confidently evoked….. It is busywork on a vast, almost incomprehensible scale. It is dispiriting; it depresses the whole scholarly enterprise; and … most important of all, it deprives the student of what he or she deserves – the thoughtful and considerate attention of a teacher deeply and unequivocally committed to teaching.”
2. Drawbacks of the existing system
More generally the drawbacks and flaws of the existing scientific enterprise and its management system can be expressed as follows.
1. Too much time, mental energy and scientists’ talents are spent worthlessly to advance in their scientific careers. The intellectual potential of scientist is used very ineffectively since they have to be simultaneously, generators and developers of new scientific ideas, fund raisers, teachers, lecturers, managers and writers of scientific projects, writers of books and articles, free of charge different type of service provider. Scientists have to waste a lot of time for “marketing” and “selling” their ideas.
2. The science produces too much worthless, redundant information, the further the more. The ratio worth/worthless become less and less.
3. The precision with which scientists’ valuable contribution to the world scientific knowledge database is measured is unacceptably poor. The reward system is highly subjective, generates many mistakes and it is logically contradictory.
4. The system is very slow to accept and to develop new ideas, inventions and scientific proposals. It is especially slow in the field of purposive fundamental science which is between fundamental and applied science. Unacceptably slow, very expensive, making too many mistakes and nonselective is a patent system.
5. The scientific system is closed. Not every scientist has access to the funding to check his ideas even if his ideas have rather high potential value.
6. The number of good, worth studying further ideas, grows much faster than the ability of the system to digest and experimentally/theoretically to check them.
3. Goals of the invention.
- To advance and accelerate scientific progress and consequently the progress of economy.
- To provide better precision and speed in evaluation of new promising ideas, inventions and scientific proposals.
- To provide the realization of a new principle of scientific policy: “Equal opportunity for equally good scientific ideas.”
- To increase the speed of development and commercialization of new promising ideas, inventions and scientific proposals.
- To provide more precise evaluation of intellectual ability and potential of inventors, scientists and science managers.
- To improve the quality of teaching at universities.
- To improve the efficiency of the intellectual capital and resources usage.
- To improve the degree of fairness and precision in rewarding of scientists for their achievements.
- To improve the degree of intellectual property (IP) of scientists protection. To decrease the probability for IP of scientist to be stolen, pirated or/and used without appropriate acknowledgement.
- To eliminate the waste of time, energy and money to create new businesses, when it is not necessary for the authors of scientific idea.
- To increase the degree of scientific enterprise openness. To make it more resistive to corruptive forces of “old boys’ network”.
- To decrease the time which is necessary to determine the rank of scientist. To increase precision and to decrease the time , which is necessary to determine the rank of generators of new scientific ideas (GId) and reviewers of scientific proposals.
- To improve the ability of the science management system for self-improvement.
- To decrease a waste of money and the probability to be funded for the pseudoscientific projects.
- To increase the speed, quality and productivity of experimental work and decrease the price tag for experiments.
- To achieve better level of job security for creative and efficient GIds and reviewers.
- To decrease a scientific wasteland and the informational noise. To get rid from the scientific environment pernicious paradigm “publish or perish.”
- The decrease the pernicious influence of “pathological decentralization” of the U.S. science.
- To help finding the best managers, CEO at younger age who demonstrate the ability to generate valuable new ideas and ability to solve sophisticated, ill-structured managerial and scientific tasks.
- To create for scientists the reliable, trustworthy feedback, quickly showing their successes and failures, helping them quickly reorient their efforts towards more promising, more advanced science.
- To eliminate the signs of pathological rivalry appearing in the competition between developers of scientific projects and GIds.
- To eliminate for good creative scientists the waste of time trying to find a job.
To decrease the probability that good, established scientists will be thrown away
from the scientific market, i.e. to decrease the bad chance influence on career of
efficient, creative, established scientists.
- To begin a new era in science when everyone can tell the truth without fear being punished. To end the era in science when a whistle-blowers telling the truth are penalized.
4. Business method description.
Every new scientific knowledge begins from an idea, the value of which in the beginning can only be understood by an author. The idea can further be developed into an invention, scientific fact, theory etc understood by many other scientists, inventors, engineers, investors. Sometimes millions or even billions of dollars should be spent on the scientific research to check and to develop the idea before private investor can support its further development and commercialization. In his decision to provide financial support the investor very often is oriented on the existing peer-review system, the experts-reviewers opinions and evaluations. As it was shown above the existing peer-review and the system for scientists-reviewers ranking is a total mess. We do not know exactly who is who in science and therefore can not know exactly what is what about ideas. Due to this it takes on average to spend too much time and money to develop an idea to the level from which a private investor might agree to risk his money for further investment.
In the beginning we only briefly describe main ideas about what is going to be suggested.
1. Instead of four well known Mertonian norms governing modern science (universalism, organized skepticism, communism, and disinterestedness), which apparently are derived from the communism ideology, the only one norm is suggested: equal opportunity for equally good scientific ideas.
2. A private, government or universities supported (virtual from the very beginning) Internet connected agency open for every scientist has to be created. Every scientist can submit his ideas to the agency and can become a member of the agency. Every member can participate in evaluation and review of any submitted ideas and proposals.
3. All members should sign nondisclosure/nonusage agreement. According to this agreement, during a predetermined a period of time any info from the agency database cannot be disclosed to anybody (except the members), used in any way or explored by a member without permission of an author.
4. Periodically all reviewers and all evaluated ideas will be ranked by the agency. All reviews are onymous.
The most important novelty of this new system is incorporation of more than hundred years old, however never realized, suggestion about much higher level protection of novel scientific ideas, with a new way of their protection. The level of protection in principle can be from zero (i.e. like it is at present) to a perpetual absolute ownership, like for example, the ownership of stocks. It is understandable that main reason why the ideas are not protected by law are not scientific, but rather more of political and cultural nature . Even in XXI century the common sense of not only ordinary people, but also majority of scientists unfortunately has not reached the necessary stage of understanding and acceptance of this rather simple ideology about better protection of ideas and proposals. …. “Society offers non economic incentive to disclose (an idea) … Society does not, however, confer an economic reward because it fears that Einstein may somehow get a monopoly on e=mc2 and whatever it might be applied to. … Both Einstein and society get some advantages and some disadvantages.” . The author of this expression is trying to convince us that people do not want E = mc2 belonging to somebody personally. But the same can be said about patents and about any type of IP and tangible property . I.e. the argument about Einstein’s monopoly does not have any scientific grounds and rather is the result of political pressure from left-oriented people and their representatives.
4.1. Why the ideas have to be better protected?
Let us analyze why in the modern science novel original ideas and proposals have to be much better protected. There are many reasons for that and some of them are as follows:
1. All scientific ideas have independently existing their own value. The methodology to determine this value, at least in the very first approximation, practically does not exist. For many knowledgeable, intellectually advanced scientists it is very often enough to know only the idea in order to organize (if they have an access to resources) hundreds and may be thousands of small scale research works, which can easily be derived logically by them and many others from the original idea. Very often in this situation all credits go to somebody who had only the resources to develop an idea, had developed it, but had not participated in its origination. The originator of an idea can get sometimes almost nothing.
2. The virtual and actual theft of ideas in science is a rather frequently occurring event . No one had ever been punished for the theft of ideas in science. Moreover, a lot of scientists received undeserved rewards and credits, leaving the real, genuine generator of idea (GId) in the shadow . Thus the existing system actually encourages scientists to steal ideas from each other. This is a very outrageous, ill and unfair asymmetry. …. ideas are “routinely pirated”from research proposals by reviewers. This is a grave and blatant violation of professional ethics, with potential legal ramifications. But such charges are exceedingly difficult to investigate and substantiate .
3. When ideas are not protected, the general visible picture of scientists’ rank allocation is distorted dramatically in comparison with the real distribution of intellectual potential and efficiency of scientists, which is hidden, buried, and camouflaged. There is no way we canfigure outprecisely who is who in science.
4. There are a lot of independent, maverick scientists, who have great ideas, but due to the fact that the science become a more closed enterprise they do not have any opportunity to develop them further. Their ideas are developed with much slower pace than ideas of somebody who has an access to the developmental resources.
5.The trade secret law of many countries protects very well all new ideas generated by the employees of any enterprise and they can easily be protected within an enterprise to any required level. Any outsiders, independent scientists and inventors do not have this powerful instrument to protect their ideas.
6.The existing system of science organization and management provides less and less incentives for the GIds to generate new original ideas. The award system for GIds becomes more and more subjective, arbitrary, frivolous and irrelevant. In such a milieu they tend to become simultaneously outcasts and endangered species.
7.The inadequate system for idea protection ruins moral climate of scientific community, transforming it into “empire of lies”.
8. As it was mentioned by J.V. DeLong  :“ The existence of [intellectual] property rights diffuses power. If resources are not owned, they will be allocated by the rules of politics, not by the rules of morality and economics.”
9.Sooner or later the process of moving the small-scale, well-structured scientific experimental work into third countries will be intensified exactly like it is happening at present with manufacturing of computers, electronics, cars and even with the software development. Under these circumstances new original ideas have to be much better protected worldwide, since most of them was and is being created in developed countries.
11. Any idea is as distinguishable as a melody of music. As it is well known, based on any melody many new musical variations can be developed by many other composers. Nevertheless, in music all rights for any variations will be held by the originator of the first original melody. Copyright law protects any novel melody of music, hundreds of which can be created by anyone, but ideas are not protected. This strange asymmetry does not have any logical explanation and justification.
12. Ideas, as a rule, are generated individually by a single scientist or inventor. Therefore, if ideas are well protected by law we have much better chances of finding, elucidating and evaluating personal contribution of scientists.
13. The probability that a private investor would invest money into a raw idea and long-term research is much higher if scientific ideas are better protected. The science, under these conditions, can have much better chances for survival without federal financial support, endowments etc. to begin a new era, when the whole scientific enterprise is privatized.
14. Not less than businessman, entrepreneurs, actors, artists etc. good efficient scientists, GId deserve to be millionaires and billionaires. No one scientists in the world yet become a billionaire but practically all existing billionaires organized their business based on the knowledge obtained by scientists during the last 100 –200 years.
More detailed description of a new business method is disclosed further. At present, the authors of new scientific ideas can submit their proposal to hundreds foundations, institutions, organizations, agencies in order to find money for their research. All of these agencies have different type of peer review systems and different lists of topics, which they consider for funding. Most of the peer review systems accepted by these funds distributing institutions are anonymous. Too many organizations supporting research means too much confusion for scientists and too much wasted time for writing proposals. "…I have certainly noticed changes over the years, both in the nature of the programs and the amount of work needed in raising sufficient funds to curry out research. The simple fact is that university chemists are spending too much of their time raising money. Indeed, this is a familiar complaint from almost all of the young (and older) scientists I know. Some claim they spend 70% of their time on fund raising, and if it so, it is a deplorable situation." . One of the factor which leads to this deplorable situation is described very precisely by a well-known expression that the US science is “pathologically decentralized”. This phenomenon does not have any coherent and logical explanation.
In this work it is suggested to introduce a novel open system, where only onymous preliminary evaluation of scientific merits of proposals or ideas will be performed. I.e. the evaluation of scientific merits of all ideas and proposals of all scientists is suggested to perform in one private or federally owned an Internet connected company. Let us call this company Global Open Network for Experts (GLONEX).
The company can have an Internet connected database, where new ideas can be submitted. Everybody who wants to have access to the database should agree to become a member of GLONEX. Any new well-accomplished or raw idea or hypothesis from anybody, not obligatory a member of GLONEX, can be submitted to the company database. Everybody who wants to be a member and to have an access to the database have to sign nondisclosure/nonusage agreement. According to this agreement, any info from the database cannot be disclosed to anybody, except to the members, used or explored by a member without permission of the author. All members are supposed to pay minimal membership fee and agree to follow ethical rules for members, they can have access to any idea and any review about this idea in the database. All members can be reviewers of any submitted idea.
Any author can submit any number of ideas. After that they are divided into two classes: certified and noncertified or raw ideas. The idea is considered certified if it is understood by at least one scientist-reviewer in the world and his evaluation is included into GLONEX database. The idea understood by a reviewer means: the information provided by an author is sufficient in order to evaluate it on four parameters: 1) to conclude that it is scientifically correct or wrong; 2) novel or known, 3) obvious or nonobvious; and 4) it is worth or not worth to be studied further. If at least on one parameter the idea is not evaluated it is considered noncertified.
There could be several scenarios after an idea is submitted to the database.
The first scenario is when an idea does not produce any response from reviewers, i.e. it is not certified. It might be when it is wrong, no one is interested, no one understood or partially understood the idea. An author of the raw idea can write it more in detail to be more understandable and submit again to the database.
Second. The idea is certified by at least one scientist-reviewer. The author even in this case can sent his idea or proposal with reviewer's comments to research supporting foundations. A funding organization based on the rank of reviewer can decide if the proposed research worth to be funded. The funding organization can reject entirely or conditionally the idea-proposal if only one or several reviewers with dubious reputation support the proposal. The author might be asked to write his idea more elaborate, more in detail to be understood by other reviewers.
Third. The idea is understood by many high-ranking reviewers and evaluated as a promising with recommendation to be studied further. In this case, the idea can be considered as worth to be sent for funding. The author can send it with GLONEX certificate to as many agencies as he wants.
Fourth. The idea is understood by many reviewers and recognized as wrong or not worth to be studied further. In this case, it would not be worth sending the idea to a funding institution. However, there is important difference between nowadays procedure for idea acceptance and procedure described in this new method. According to this method, all reviews are expected to be completely open and all reviewers will be responsible during the whole period of work within GLONEX for all their reviews. If reviewers made many mistakes in evaluating ideas their rank and their rewards from GLONEX will be diminished. It will also be diminished the value of any idea which was certified by a reviewer. Under these conditions, for all reviewers it will always be beneficial to support good promising ideas and to reject the ones that are wrong or not showing good potential. The author of a good but rejected idea will have at least satisfaction that somebody who rejected his idea are reprimanded or punished to some extend.
Fifth. The idea has mixed response. Several good and several bad reviews. The author in this case should ether wait until the real value of idea will be elucidated or risk and send it to an agency of his choice.
The authors have to pay a modest fee for the idea submission and every year a fee for keeping the idea in the database. The authors (GIds) will pay a certain fee to GLONEX for their idea evaluation. To accelerate the process of idea evaluation and in case if the author does not have the money to pay to reviewers he can write a promissory note and ask reviewers to examine his or her idea on a contingency bases. Within GLONEX all rights for the idea can be sold, licensed, or given for free entirely or partially by author to anybody. Accepting membership in GLONEX every GId should also agree that part of his future royalties for ideas have to be assigned for GLONEX.
To prevent from somebody sending too much scientific garbage, useless, wrong ideas, the submission fee can be raised for them. All results of idea evaluation will be open only for GLONEX staff and members and will be considered as a GLONEX trade secret. Also the database partially will be open to everybody, not only members, if GId would agree to provide partial or whole access to his ideas for nonmembers. The rank of reviewers will be determined based on their right and wrong evaluations and the fate of the ideas they examined. The reviewers can get maximum rank if in the first approximation the result of his evaluations correlates with results of the best, high ranking reviewers. His finale rank will be determined based on the number of accepted and rejected ideas and how his evaluations correlate with real fate and value of ideas. The idea is considered valuable if 1) it was developed further or used in any way not only by the author but also by other scientists in this or any other countries to produce a novel scientific knowledge derived from the idea; 2) the scientific knowledge contained in the idea is presented in scientific books and especially in the textbooks for students or used by teachers to teach students; 3) the idea was a necessary knowledge in a patent or in order to introduce a new or modified product or service on the market; generally speaking, if the idea brought any tangible benefits for the people in this country or/and worldwide.
Based on any tip, hint or a new evidence reviewer can reverse or change their conclusions on any idea any time. Their rank will be much worse if they did not notice (when everybody have noticed) that earlier rejected by them idea was actually worth to be studied, patented and commercialized.
It is easy to understand that based on this system the rank of reviewers can be determined much faster (1-2 years) than in existing system, where it normally require at least 10 –15 years. GLONEX will accept the open innovation concept i.e. it will also accept novel nontrivial ideas on a subject how to improve the efficiency, accuracy, speed in idea evaluation. It is understandable that any novel and nonobvious idea will not be used by GLONEX without permission of an author.
Loud scientific noise is not the only weapon which modern science uses against novel good ideas. There is another one which is known as a “conspiracy of silence.”. It’s not uncommon that in the modern science something that is suggested by somebody who is not a well-known scientist is kept for a long time in the shadow. The existence of this effect also can be attributed to the inadequate influence of subjective factor in science. For many scientists, especially for nontenured young university professors to start to develop an invisible in scientific circles idea, which might be recognized in 10 –50 years, is with great probability to kill their scientific careers. Also, the existing scientific system practically does not provide any incentives for scientists-reviewers to support novel promising research. However, it provides many incentives and easy realizable opportunity to impede something new when this impediment is beneficial for them personally.
In the described new system, the fate of good, promising idea is expected to be very different. Since GLONEX can offer a reward (or some share of potential revenue from ideas) for recognizing their valuable ideas, any reviewer will be tuned to discover and promote something really significant. Another incentive for them will be the fact that recognition of valuable ideas and rejection of something what does not show potential benefits for the Investor and society will increase their rank.
To mitigate the fact that monopoly for a scientific idea can, in principle, impede the scientific and economic progress, the government can offer to authors of valuable ideas some sort of tenure position at a government sponsored scientific institution. This, in reality, might be virtual, Internet based institution. The actual place of work for scientists can be anywhere: university, private company, their own home or any place where they feel comfortable to work. All scientists, who obtain such tenure, will be obliged to disclose all their scientific findings into the public domain and they cannot prevent others to use their ideas. Such type of tenure is radically different than a tenure-faculty at modern universities, but it is much more logical and rational. It will be given only to a person who might otherwise monopolize scientific knowledge impeding further scientific progress in some crucial areas of research. Awarding tenure in such a way for a university professor would also justify public financial support of scientific research at universities, because affiliated with universities authors would relinquish their rights for ideas (which of course do not exist now) trading them for public money to conduct a research. It is clearly seen that in this case the career of scientists will depend only on their personal scientific contribution and would not depend on a huge number of subjective and irrelevant factors described above.
All ideas entering GLONEX will be ranked and list of all of them can be presented, let us say, every month, every quarter, every half year, every year etc. They will be ranked according to their potential value assigned by reviewers. The best will be listed the ideas or proposals which were recognized as such by the best high-ranking reviewers.
The appearance in the modern scientific enterprise a company like GLONEX can move us considerably closer to the implementation of very often heard proposal about shared university facilities and industrialization of scientific experiment. “Universities should develop shared central facilities that are the common responsibilities of the faculty and the university. The nature of these facilities and the services they provide should reflect the faculty research needs shared facilities would give all faculty access to needed instrumentation, and would relieve them of burdensome efforts directed at obtaining and maintaining complex instrumentation.” May be not only in American but also in the whole world of science there exists a longstanding problem, that the number of ideas which are necessary to check experimentally grow much faster that the ability of existing experimental enterprise to verify them. It is understandable for everyone that scientific experiment industrialization is the only option to solve this at least 20 –30 years old problem. The industrialization in this case means building not only universities’ shared facilities but also rather large well-equipped experiment enterprises where experiments will be conducted mostly by professional world class let us say 100 – 300 experimentalists. Amazingly modern universities, spending more than 90% of all money for nonmilitary preapplied, fundamental and purposeful fundamental research practically do not have professional experimentalists in their scientific laboratories. Mostly graduate students and postdocs perform all experiments. Average graduate student, of course, is very far behind in productivity (not so rare orders of magnitude) and in the quality of work in comparison with the world-class experimentalists. Since professors have many students and they are extremely busy with their everyday routine the teaching of grad students-experimentalists is very often carried out by a little bit more senior grad students or by postdocs. Such type of teaching, of course, is not so beneficial for students [1,3]. Universities more concern about producing more and more Ph.D. then about productivity and quality of experimental scientific works which are conducted by them. Because of this gradually pro experimentalists have disappeared from universities and they also (likewise the GIds) become endangered species.
It needs to be clarified that the briefly described above new business method from the very beginning has to be supported financially by the government. The necessity of this support unavoidably follows from the fact that in the existing scientific enterprise novel original scientific results and ideas are practically not protected by the intellectual property (IP) law. Carefully analyzing how IP low is designed in modern free market countries it can be concluded that there is evident tendency: the better ideas and scientific results of scientists are protected the less public money are required for scientific research. If there exist 100% ownership for ideas and scientific results there is a chance and potentials in the future for 0% of government support of science; or if there is 0% ownership for ideas like it is now there must exist 100% support of all preapplied science by the government with increased every year spending. Once again it needs to be emphasized that in existing modern scientific enterprise with existing IP law all scientific research, which is at the level when private investor feels that the risk is too high for funding, has to be funded by people money. Thus it can be speculated that science can be privatized in the best case may be in 20 –30 years only when there exist certain much higher level of IP protection. However, it is not clear yet how high this level has to be. To verify experimentally which minimal level of IP protection is needed is also one of the goal of a suggested in this invention new system for ideas commercialization.
Yet another feature of this new system needs to be emphasized. From the moment when a new system is introduced the times will be gone forever when nobody is punished or/and responsible for dumping down novel, original, worth to be studied, beneficial for the Investor ideas.
4.2. Advantages of the business method.
There are numerous advantages of the business method described in this disclosure for the scientific ideas, proposals and inventions commercialization .
1. The system is absolutely not harmful to anybody. No one will be hurt from the old system. No one will be forcefully dragged into this new system. They can coexist together very peacefully. More over, existence of both systems will stimulate, accelerate positive changes and developments within each system. In the future they may be even converge.
2. For the first time in the history of science people can have limited ownership for their ideas. Their ideas will be much better protected. If majority of GIds and reviewers will participate in GLONEX this virtual, limited ownership will become very close to wholly sustained ownership.
3. The evaluation of ideas will be performed much faster and with better precision by professional reviewers.
4. For the first time in the history of science scholars can earn their living for only generating new scientific ideas, or for only evaluation of ideas.
5. Scientists would have a more reliable feedback allowing them to understand rather quickly their errors and failures, orienting them towards more promising, more advanced scientific research.
6. Much greater degree of the science openness will be provided by a new system.
To understand these advantages more clearly lets us compare the features and differences of an old and a new system of science organization and management:
4.3. Old and new systems and methods comparison
Mostly closed system sometimes even for established scientists. The principle "equal opportunity for equally good scientific ideas" is not known here and not accepted.
Always open for everybody with useful ideas and everybody who would like to review and evaluate the ideas and scientific proposals. Perfectly accepts and realizes the principle "equal opportunity for equally good scientific ideas"
In most cases can not reward scientists separately for their scientific achievements, inventions, ideas, reviews, experiments, theories etc. It is not very rare that the reward goes to a figureheads who did not participate in a project as a scientist.
Can reward separately for any personal scientific achievements, inventions, ideas, reviews, experiments, theories etc.
The career and reward of scientists very often depends on numerous irrelevant and subjective factors.
The career and rewards of scientists depends only on the real value of their personal scientific contribution.
There is no objective, generally accepted, coherent, logical criteria how to evaluate the ideas and scientific proposals. Many criteria are purely emotional and subjective.
Accepts only objective criteria for evaluation of proposals and ideas.
Any new ideas can be used, developed, explored without author permission. There is no institution of ownership for ideas.
Ideas can not be used, developed, explored without author permission. Within GLONEX the ownership for ideas will be established during lifetime of the owner plus predetermined number of years.
Practically does not allow the existence of independent GIds, reviewers, and inventors. GIds become endangered species.
Scientists can have choice to work as independent GId, reviewers, experimentalists etc. Independent GIds can survive.
Small-scale experiments are mostly performed in poorly equipped university laboratories.
Even small-scale experiment can be performed in relatively large well-equipped experiment-enterprises.
Practically there are no professional experimentalists (may be only in high energy and nuclear physics). Not very rare even complex experiments are performed by graduate students and postdocs. Pro experimentalists become endangered species.
Most complex experiments are performed by professional experimentalists with or without help of postdocs/students.
Very poor precision in establishing the rank of every scientist, GId and reviewers.
Time dependent rank of every scientist, GId and reviewers is established more precisely.
Large grants to perform research. Principal Investigator (P.I.) can practically direct his research wherever he wants without any external control. Practically all experiments are performed by one lab in one university.
Allow not only large grants but also small grants to perform only one experiment. Most experiments are performed by two or more independent groups from different experiment-enterprise.
Does not allow coexistence of old and new system or systems of science management.
Does allow coexistence of old and any number of new systems of science organization and the systems for ideas commercialization.
Most of the ideas are not ranked and randomly developed.
All ideas are ranked by certified reviewers according to their potential scientific value and potential for commercialization.
Proposal for a research involving experiment can be sent only by a person who has access to certain resources to conduct experiments.
Proposals and ideas can be sent by anyone.
May be the most important advantage of this new system is the fact that it does not matter from the very beginning what project or idea are suggested to improve the existing scientific enterprise. This new system can find out much faster a right way no matter where we are lost at present is the jungles of modern science management system. I.e. the new system has a very great potential for self-improvement.
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